Belgium were knocked out of the World Cup at the group stage as Croatia progressed at their expense with a goalless draw in Qatar.
Roberto Martinez’s side, who finished third in Russia four years ago and are ranked second in the world, have had a disappointing tournament with just one win in three matches.
They put in another lacklustre display against Croatia despite knowing a win was necessary to progress to the last 16.
Substitute Romelu Lukaku had numerous chances in the second half but failed to convert any.
Lukaku, still returning to full fitness following injury, poked an effort wide and then reacted too late when the ball hit him in front of goal in stoppage time.